Highlights

The future of data centres

ThermoKey recently participated in two major events in the world of data centres: the Data Centre World exhibition in London and Data Center Nation in Milan. These opportunities have strengthened our international presence and allowed us to share and enrich our know-how with the latest developments in the market. The discussions and interactions at these exhibition outlined a rapidly changing landscape: the exponential increase in data generated by the IoT, the ever-increasing adoption of...

New 3D distributor from ThermoKey

A revolutionary innovation for thermal efficiency in Europe We are excited to present our innovative 3D distributor, the result of years of research and development in collaboration with the University of Udine. It is a state-of-the-art solution, equipped with a helix groove and secondary channels that generate vortices to effectively mix the coolant flow. Designed using advanced CFD simulations, it has been validated through strict laboratory tests that have shown a significant increase in...

ThermoKey participates in the definition of the European standards of the future

Thanks to the experience and know-how gained in more than 30 years of activity in the HVAC/R sector, ThermoKey was chosen to participate in the discussion tables of CEN, the European Standardization Committee, in the field of regulations related to PED 2014 /68/EU. CEN brings together the standardization bodies of 34 European countries and acts as a platform for the development of common standards at a European level. The activities of this Committee cover many different areas,...

ThermoKey at the SIFA exhibition

From 10th to 12th October ThermoKey participated in SIFA, the most important French refrigeration fair. The event, which brings together more than 130 exhibitors and more than 4000 industry experts, was a success: our sales team welcomed visitors in front of our Cubic Unit Cooler for CO2 applications totally made of stainless steel to talk about sustainability and technical solutions in the refrigeration market. We would like to thank all the customers we met for the exchange of knowledge and...

New historical turnover record

October 2023 saw ThermoKey with a new record, with revenues exceeding 43 million euros. An increase of 23% compared to the first nine months of last year. The Drycoolers turn out to be our best-selling product, thanks to the wide range of configurations available and the strengthening of the company’s positioning in the Data Centre cooling market. DISCOVER OUR DRYCOOLERS Confident in the results achieved, which make us proud and confirm the success of the strategies...

New sales managers to support the growth of ThermoKey Deutschland: Alexander Kersten and Tim Karrasch

ThermoKey Deutschland GmbH enthusiastically announces further investments in its sales team ThermoKey Deutschland GmbH, the reference in the HVAC/R industry for German-speaking countries, enthusiastically announces further investments in its team to strengthen its position of excellence. The German plant of ThermoKey, founded in 2005 with an office in Olching, near Munich, which deals with customers from Germany, Austria and Switzerland, welcomes two new key figures for its growth. Alexander...

TK Desk: the new online configurator that replaces ThermalKey

TK Desk: the online configurator for microchannel cores TK Desk is the new ThermoKey software created specifically to simplify the calculation and configuration of the microchannel condensing and free cooling cores. With direct access from our website, this online configurator replaces the previous ThermalKey, which has been used for the past 12 years. TK Desk will allow you to identify the solution that best meets your needs, more easily and quickly. Discover TK DeskTK Desk is simple and...

Stefan Troßmann new member of sales team

ThermoKey Deutschland GmbH sales team is enriched with a new member: Stefan Troßmann! Thanks to his deep experience for renowned companies, he will make a valuable contribution to strengthening our role as a reference point for our customers in Germany, providing personalized assistance and support according to needs. Welcome to our team!

Summer Break!

We will take some time off and we will be back on August 29nd. thermokey summer break holidays We wish you happy summer holidays! thermokey summer break holidays

THE FIRST THERMOKEY SUSTAINABILITY REPORT 2022 WAS PUBLISHED

ThermoKey is pleased to present you the first corporate Sustainability Report for year 2022 To ThermoKey, the Sustainability Report represents an important step forward in its mission to make the market of HVAC/R increasingly sustainable. At ThermoKey we believe that our real challenge is to positively influence people's lives through innovative and low environmental impact solutions. For over 30 years, we have been providing our expertise and knowledge of market to innovate our products,...

New Business Leader ThermoKey Middle East & Africa

We are thrilled to announce the new addition to our sales team: Ihsane Griou! With his expertise and experience in the HVAC/R industry, Ihsane will take on the role of Business Leader for the Middle East and Africa market, supporting our company in expanding business opportunities in these important regions. To directly reach out to Ihsane, please email him at i.griou@thermokey.com. He will be delighted to provide personalized assistance and guide you in selecting the most suitable ThermoKey...

Annual budget 2022

Bilancio annuale 2022 During the course of 2022 TK pursued its growing strategy with determination, following the innovation guideline, confirming itself as one of the  reference players in Italy and Europe in the refrigeration and air conditioning  field.  Challenges connected with global phaenomena - sometimes not easy to foresee- have not been lacking and have forced companies to operate difficult choices. ThermoKey thanks to its over 30 years experience was proud to show its value...

THE INTRODUCTION OF EXOSKELETONS TO REDUCE PHYSICAL EFFORT

The support of exoskeletons to protect the health of workers From  this week, we started using exoskeletons in our production department: they are wearable robotic structures that act in symbiosis with the operator following his intention of movement. This technology provides a valid aid to workers by helping to prevent and delay the onset of musculoskeletal disorders associated with strenuous tasks. In particoular, following preliminary tests with the involvement of our RLS Riccardo...

GIORGIO VISENTINI PROTAGONIST ON IL FRIULI BUSINESS

Our CEO Giorgio Visentini is the protagonist of the cover of Il Friuli Business, a monthly magazine dedicated to the economy of Friuli Venezia Giulia In the interview he gave, Giorgio Visentini describes himself as “somewhere between a manager and an entrepreneur”. He retraces the stages of his career, during which he held senior positions in major companies in the region: Chief Operating Officer at Danieli in Buttrio, General Manager at Casagrande in Pordenone, Managing Director and...
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THE NEW CHALLENGES FOR COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION

The main causes affecting the growth of air conditioning and refrigeration systems The commercial and industrial refrigeration and air conditioning markets have been growing steadily for 20 years and are destined to increase. The main causes that will affect this growth in the near future are: The process of electrification / decommissioning of heating by combustion, which will have to be replaced with heat pumps and heat recovery. The significant growth of data centre due...
ThermoKey innovation local rooting

ThermoKey’s continuous innovation and strong local rooting

Continuous innovation in the Thermokey plant: from photovoltaics to the chef in the company. “We invest in local roots” ThermoKey innovation local rooting The Thermokey plant, the Friulian company specialized in heat exchangers based in Rivarotta di Teor (UD) continues to innovate and takes root in the territory to have a synergistic effect on the economic and social well-being of the territory and on the quality of life of its 222 employees, of which 81 are employees and 141 are workers...
ThermoKey partner innovative projects

ThermoKey is partner of the most innovative projects

ThermoKey partner of innovative projects The Bologna Technopole will greatly increase the accuracy of weather forecasts thanks to its new data centre of the European Weather Center and a supercomputer, described as one of the most important high performance computing machines in the world. The Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) in Padua is fundamental for the construction of ITER, one of the most ambitious energy projects in the world, a magnetic fusion reactor designed to demonstrate the...

Chillventa 2022

ThermoKey exhibited its most sustainable solutions for the HVAC/R market at Chillventa Chillventa 2022 sustainable solutions The Chillventa exhibition is confirmed to be the most important event for our sector in Europe. After years of almost forced distance for our technical sales team it was motivating to be able to see you again in person and discuss on future needs and projects. We thank you for visiting us. Without false modesty, we believe we have exhibited the...
thermokey summer break holidays

Summer Break!

We will take some time off and we will be back on August 22nd. thermokey summer break holidays We wish you happy summer holidays! thermokey summer break holidays

ThermoKey patents green refrigeration

ThermoKey patents green refrigeration designing new aluminum microchannel Nord Est Economia, the leading business newspaper covering the regions of North-East Italy, featured ThermoKey and the new technology we patented: the Multisystem Dual-Flow. ThermoKey is the only Italian player manufacturing Microchannel aluminum heat exchangers, a technology derived from automotive industry - but developed by our company for specific industrial applications - that halve the use of refrigerants while...
Heat Recovery New Solutions

ThermoKey contributes to the challenge of new heat recovery solutions

Energy impact 12% of global energy is used as useful energy, that is the energy that can actually be used by the end user. This happens because every plant can cause energy losses during production, distribution, emission and regulation phases. In Italy, only regarding the industrial market there is an energy waste equal to 27 TW / h per year, comparable to the average annual consumption of 450,000 families made up of 4 people2. Nowadays waste heat represents between 25 and 50% of global...

SPECIFIC CONTEXTS REQUIRE SPECIFIC SOLUTIONS

ThermoKey's experience in the choice of custom-made solutions During our 30-year experience we have tested different material combinations to meet the needs of our customers linked to specific contexts in which our units are installed. Following you will find some examples of contexts and working processes that may be corrosive for the plants and their components, which therefore require a combination of specific materials. The right choice for sustainable and durable solutions Finding...
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ThermoKey Founding Member of Additive FVG

Founding member Additive FVG Together with Brovedani Group and Wärtsilä, ThermoKey is proud to be one of the united Founding Members companies to promote and support innovation through the Additive FVG project, the initiative promoted by Friuli Innovazione, an Italian and international reference hub for additive technologies. Additive FVG is a cutting-edge centre that supports companies in the adoption of advanced production technologies, stimulating change in business models, improving...
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Data Centre: the challenge towards environmental sustainability

CONTEXT In 2020, every person on earth generated 1.7 megabytes of information per second. By 2025, the amount of data generated each day could reach 463 exabytes1. To store all this data it is necessary to extend the archiving space, thus expand and build new data centres. This need led the data centre market to be one of the few that did not stop during the period of the Covid-192 pandemic but rather to record a significant growth. The manufacturing market of these infrastructures can be...
ThermoKey 30th anniversary

Today marks ThermoKey’s 30th anniversary

ThermoKey 30th anniversary They were 30 years of challenges, of innovation, of extraordinary changes. Ever since our foundation, in 1991, our goal has been providing the best heat exchange solutions according to the specific needs of our diverse clients. Over the years we committed to fulfill this objective, step by step, by adopting and developing technologies in line with the times or even ahead of time. ThermoKey 30th anniversary The most significant example is our TKMicro. In...
Green Cooling Summit 2021

Green Cooling Summit – May 25 /27, 2021

ThermoKey will participate in the Green Cooling Summit virtual showroom to be held on 25 - 27 May 2021. Green Cooling Summit 2021 The virtual summit addresses political and technical approaches to manage the HFC phase-down under the Kigali Amendment with natural refrigerants, and it is jointly organized by the German Environment Agency and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear...
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ThermoKey participates in the vaccination campaign promoted by Confindustria Udine

confindustria udine vaccination campaign From the very beginning of the current health crisis, at ThermoKey we have been committed to doing our utmost to deal with this extraordinary situation and ensure the health and safety of our employees and their families, our suppliers, and our community. Today we renew once again our commitment by offering our employees the opportunity to get vaccinated against Covid-19 directly at the company headquarters for free. The workplace immunization campaign...

Stainless Steel Heat Exchangers

When is it appropriate to take into consideration the use of a stainless steel exchanger? Internal Corrosion Risk (tube) due to the use of process fluids such as: Demineralized water for industrial applications; NH3 (UnitCoolers); Special fluids such as nanotechnological glycols. External Corrosion Risk (tube and fins) for environmental reasons or industrial markets with a corrosive environment, food industry: fish or cheese cold rooms; for aggressive sanitizing washings; for...
ThermoKey 2020 Budget

ThermoKey – 2020 results

ThermoKey 2020 Budget Proud to be featured on the Pages of the Messaggero Veneto We are proud ThermoKey was featured on the Italian daily newspaper Messaggero Veneto, and we are even prouder we can now say that we won our bet: we repurchased 100% of our shares, with a turnover of 33.4 millions in 2020, a +10% growth over 5 years. ThermoKey 2020 Budget ThermoKey in Rivarotta Teor, a company specialized in the production of heat exchangers for refrigeration and air conditioning,...
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Thermokey: Friuli Venezia Giulia’s refrigeration expertise on the front line against COVID-19

As news about vaccine candidates reaching phase 3 of the trial becomes more and more copious, ThermoKey company, which is 100% made in Friulia Venezia Giulia and international player in the closely related field of industrial refrigeration  for logistics and  preservation of vials, is ready to play its part. The company located in Rivarotta di Teor (UD) was chosen by an important pharmaceutical company engaged in the production of a Covid vaccine. “We are not allowed to spread...
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TKMicro – The Italian Green Heat Exchanger

TKMicro® microchannel heat exchangers are widely recognized as an efficient technology with thousands of successful worldwide installations in most of HVAC/R application fields. Since 2010, ThermoKey has manufactured condenser and water microchannel cores leading in Europe a technological transition from traditional round-tube Cu-Al heat exchangers. TKMicro® is an opportunity for the OEMs to change over to more efficient heat transfer solutions, to lighter assemblies and to more...
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Chillventa eSpecial 2020

ThermoKey will be present with a virtual booth during all 3 days of the Exhibition! The new solutions for the HVAC market and the refrigeration industry will be presented at the 100%-virtual Chillventa eSpecial event on October 13-14-15. NEW INDUSTRIAL CUBIC UNIT COOLERS Application: industrial refrigeration for food market refrigerated warehouses preservation of fresh and frozen products aging process long time preservation air conditioning of processing rooms ARCHIMEDE...
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Free Cooling – Find out how it works and the benefits that it can offer

#GreenSolutions for more ecofriendly Data Centres Freecoling is a technique which consists in the use of the external atmosphere to produce a more efficient cooling of a system or of a liquid. Find out the many benefits that the Free Cooling can offer: a reduction of the energy consumption, a reduction of the charge on the mechanical parts, a lower charge, a quick recovery of the investment. In the video we will discuss: What is Freecooling? How does the freecoling of a chiller...

Latest news and useful information on the HVAC/R industry

After enjoying a little summer break, we are back and we are excited to look at what lies ahead in the next months, always with one goal in mind: provide excellent support to our clients and satisfy their needs and requirements in the best way possible. Are you curious to learn more about our products, our projects, and on the HVAC/R trends? JOIN THERMOKEY NEWSLETTER RIGHT NOW

Summer break

Our offices will be closed for holidays from 14th to 23th August, included.   ThermoKey's staff will take some time off in order to come back with even more energy and enthusiasm for our clients! We wish all of you happy summer holidays and we hope you get the chance to enjoy a little break and recharge your batteries.

TKAcademy TRAINING MODULES

FIRST TRAINING MODULESmart cooling with the microchannel solution Thanks to the efforts of our team of experts on the microchannel, we launched the first training module of our TKAcademy which was dedicated to the "Intelligent cooling with the microchannel solution". Thanks to the interest met from chiller manufacturers, we want to further deepen the most technical aspects of our offer in order for them to be able to propose the most profitable solutions to their customers. For...

ThermoKey – 2019 budget

Today we were featured in the Messaggero Veneto newspaper, the most important in Udine, with an article about our 2019 P&L statement audited by PricewaterCoopers. Profits and turnover continue growing, and during the first half of the year the order entry was in line with the 2020 budget forecast. ThermoKey continues to grow: 2019 budget figures enable us to look at the future with confidence These are very positive figures for Thermokey, a leading Friulian company in...

New refrigeration fins press

With summer approaching and the need to store food longer, the refrigeration season is about to reach its peak. What better time to start up our new refrigeration fins press? It is a new-concept 120-ton molding line produced by the Italian C.M.S. company. The production island is fully integrated with the new industry 4.0 systems and is studied and designed specifically for the production of: double layer fins; 316L stainless steel fins inside of full stainless steel solutions, also ideal...

Covid-19 Update

From the very beginning of the current health crisis, ThermoKey continued to do its utmost to deal with this extraordinary situation and ensure a timely update on the development of its activities and on delivery times.   Considering the constantly evolving situation surrounding COVID-19, we kindly ask you to please turn to your usual contact person at ThermoKey for further information and updates.    We wish to thank you once again for the support you have been showing us...

ThermoKey: 30 years of made in Italy production

Here is the interview to our General Manager, Giuseppe Visentini, published on Il Piccolo, Trieste's main newspaper. ThermoKey's growth was possible thanks to its commitment to sustainability since 2011, and to its investment in products with a low environmental impact, which made it the only Italian company manufacturing recyclable aluminium remote condensers that require 70% less refrigerant. Heat Exchangers made in Friuli Venezia Giulia are used to cool Dutch...

Industrial refrigeration – Complete range of products

Refrigeration is the technique that allows the proper storage of food and pharmaceutical products, making them easily available at separate times and locations from the ones where they were been harvested or processed. The EMEA market for cooling units used for this purpose is worth about 200 million euros. The following is an overview of the wide range of ThermoKey's products, which can be used in cold rooms for: Preservation of fresh products Preservation of packaged products ...

TKArchimede – New release 2020

TK-Archimede 2020 is characterized by the introduction of new features, by the new price list valid from today, in addition to the implementation of some accessories and the solution of some bugs. Benefits: Introduction of new materials: possibility to select directly from the software new fin materials (as Almg 2,5% for condensers and drycoolers) Introduction of new accessories: possibility to select new fans for unit coolers  Introduction of new translations: implementation of...

ThermoKey: temporary suspension of operations

As is well known, due to the current Covid-19 health emergency the Italian Government ordered the closure of all non-essential activities, at a national level. ThermoKey must therefore temporarily suspend production until Friday, 3rd April, in compliance with the Decree of the President of the Council of Ministers of 22nd March 2020. The Sales, Technical customer support, and Service departments will however continue to be operational. We are committed to do our best to meet delivery times...

THERMOKEY: DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION AND DELIVERIES CONTINUE AS USUAL

Rivarotta di Rivignano Teor (UD) – 11th March 2020  ThermoKey states that all company activities proceed as usual: our premises can be reached without any traffic restriction (neither for cars nor for trucks); production and order deliveries have not been stopped or interrupted; carriers and forwarders are allowed to carry out loading and unloading operations (in compliance with the safety instructions set by the Company to access our facilities); raw materials restock is regular...
Thermokey - Microchannel are 55% more convenient than traditional solutions.

Responsible cooling

Sustainability can also be convenient TKMicro – The Microchannel solution projected by ThermoKey, compared to the traditional Tube and Fin technology, allows to save up ¾ of the refrigerant charge, reducing both global warming potential and cost of charge. The impact of air conditioning on global climate change As Bill Gates wrote in his personal blog GatesNotes, buildings account for 6% of greenhouse gas emission and their heating and cooling systems strongly contribute...

ThermoKey: MICROCHANNEL MADE IN ITALY

Read the ZeroSottoZero interview It has been more tha ten years that the Italian company ThermoKey, based in Rivarotta di Rivignano-Teor (UD), has specialized also in the manufacturing of microchannel heat exchangers, made in aluminium and of all sizes. Today it can boast of being the only Italian company that manufactures this type of components. The advantages of the microchannel core are many - states Emanuele Dose, ThermoKey Area Manager - First of all it allows a considerable...

ThermoKey riceve il Finanziamento POR FESR 2014-2020 per l’innovazione

Every day we work hard to be one of the most innovative and fastest companies in the market and thus meet the needs of our customers around the world by providing effective, personalized and reliable solutions. ThermoKey's competitive strategy is also based on the ability to define the best technological solution which best optimises the customer's economic investment, not only at the time of purchase, but for the entire life cycle of the product (Total Cost of Ownership). To keep this market...

sales team of Thermokey Deutschland Gmbh

Since 01.01.2019 Dipl. Eng. Stefan Vetter has strengthened the sales team of ThermoKey Deutschland Gmbh. For more than 25 years  Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Vetter has been at home in the refrigeration world. As a long-standing sales engineer for one of the leading component manufacturers and as a project and sales engineer for a well-known refrigeration equipment manufacturer, Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Vetter has acquired a very extensive knowledge and a lot of experience. We are...

ThermoKey results 2018

"Our turnover increased 11% for the fourth consecutive year. This allows us to plan investing on product development and market growth"   Giuseppe Visentini, General Manager The purpose of a company is to generate a valuable product. A product with a value that Customers recognize. A value by a company who takes part in this challenge with the necessary commitment and passion. A value for additional efforts, that brings work and growth. All of this provides sustainability to...

ThermoKey North America LLC

We are expanding our sales worldwide network by opening a new officein Chicago, managed by Jose Garcia-Hernandez. Jose has been a pioneer in closed-loop cooling and has over 20 years experience in process chilling and cooling systems. ThermoKey North America LLC 161 North Clark St. Suite 1700 Chicago, IL 60601 Phone: 312-981-5052 www.thermokey.us

R32 – Difluoromethane, the new refrigerant gas

Name: R32 (HFC-32) – Difluoromethane Type: Difluoromethane Chemical formula: CH2F2 ThermoKey microchannel core (TKMicro25), thanks to its high-quality materials and increased thicknesses, is already compatible with the new R32 and all the refrigerants, current and future ones, with operating pressure (PS) equal to 50 bar and inlet temperature on the gas side of the exchanger (TS) equal to 150 ° C. The advantages in using R32 Energy efficiency: with equal consumptions, R32 allows...

The return of CO2 as a refrigerant

CO2 use in ThermoKey To stay in line with the greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set by the regulation, ThermoKey has long since introduced CO2 as a refrigerant for the whole range of evaporators. The GWP indicator - Global Warming Potential - is used to measure the level of global warming using a CO2 scale divided in 100 years. The ODP indicator - Ozone Depleting Potential - measures the impact of pollutants in the ozone-sphere and it is equal to the ratio between the ozone reduction...

ThermoKey highlights at Chillventa 2018

Watch the full video now to visit this year’s stand and discover our news and highlights at Chillventa 2018, the main gathering for the international refrigeration community including the segments AC, ventilation and heat pumps. Why Chillventa? Chillventa 2018 was a resounding success. Once again, it saw significant increases in all trade fair KPIs. An increase of +10% to 35,490 trade visitors, around +4% to 1,019 exhibitors and last but not least, a 2% rise in display area make it...

Our systems meet hygiene certificate

What is Legionella and how does it spread? Legionella is a gram-negative bacillus, responsible of a severe infective disease called Legionnaires’ disease. Legionella survives in water and mud and it is transmitted by air. Moreover it has been ascertained its transmission by the air conditioning central system.   The Legionnaires’ disease is a pulmonary infection caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacterium, which name means exactly “Legionella lover of the lungs”. The name...

Chillventa 2018

ThermoKey is ready for Chillventa 2018. We will be present at the Nuremberg Exhibition from 16th to 18th October 2018. ThermoKey presents at Chillventa its new solutions for HVAC and refrigeration markets.   Here’s what’s new this year at our stand: V-Tower A reliable and easy system which, thanks to its adiabatic control system, guarantees capacity and low impact on the environment avoiding aerosol set of problems. Archimede — New release The software for...

Adiabatic systems

The adiabatic system applied to Dry Coolers and large remote condensers are activated in order to increase the air relative humidity that passes through the heat exchanger in order to reduce the temperature and increase the heat exchange. The physical principle is that of the latent heat of evaporation: whilst evaporating the water absorbs heat from the air entering in the heat exchanger and lowering its temperature. ThermoKey has developed different adiabatic systems to be effective and...
Thermokey - specialized in tailor-made solutions

ThermoKey: specialized in tailor-made solutions.

The latest plants built by the company meet the clients’ needs and guarantee both performance and timeliness: in Nigeria, in Favignana or in the far-away New Caledonia. Flexibility in finding intelligent solutions, along with quick response time, also in the case of special projects. These are the key words that outline ThermoKey’s  new path, a Friuli based company whose goal is to become the ideal partner in supplying “ad hoc” plants for heat exchange, tailored to the customers’...
Thermokey - Microchannel are 55% more convenient than traditional solutions.

Microchannel: 55% more convenient than traditional solutions

Due to F-Gas regulation, HFC refrigerants are increasing their cost and are becoming - day by day - more difficult to find on the market. For example, in the last 7 months we have seen a 225% price increase for R404a (now around 58 Euro / Kg). The market expects the same level of price increase for all the refrigerants in phase-out like R507, R410A, R407F Phase Out HFC refrigerants 2020: operational limitation of stationary refrigeration equipment (see F-GAS regulation). 2022:...

Data-centre Coolers

As computer chips get smaller and faster, they’re getting hotter and hotter. Typically, almost 40% of a data centres’ electricity bills comes from its cooling equipment. To help reach the exaflop barrier and beyond, some data centres are investing in better cooling systems than current standard technologies. The sole purpose of data centre cooling technology is to maintain environmental conditions suitable for information technology equipment (ITE) operation. Achieving this goal requires...